Taking forward a vibrant partnership
- We, the leaders of Canada and the European Union (EU), convened today to confirm the importance of the Canada-EU relationship in a shifting global landscape. Canada and the EU have become ever closer partners in recent years, bound by common interests, democratic values and strong people-to-people ties. This strategic partnership is more important than ever in today’s challenging geopolitical environment and as we consider how best to work together to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic and pursue a sustainable, people-centred, and inclusive recovery. Almost five years after the signature of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) and of the Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA), we aim to give a new impetus to our cooperation to make us stronger and help us bring prosperity and security to our peoples.
- We commit to work together - for the benefit of Canadians, Europeans and the global community - on: (i) ending the COVID-19 pandemic and driving an equitable and sustainable global recovery, (ii) fighting climate change and protecting the environment, (iii) harnessing the potential of trade, technology and innovation for a brighter, greener and more sustainable future for all, and (iv) promoting shared democratic values and international peace and security.
- Cognizant of the importance of multilateral cooperation to tackle the pressing global challenges we face and to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, we will make resolute efforts to uphold the rules-based international order with the United Nations at its core, and to reinforce and reform the multilateral system where needed. We also look forward to reinforcing close transatlantic cooperation.
Ending the COVID-19 pandemic and driving a sustainable global recovery
- Ending the COVID-19 pandemic remains our utmost priority as the pandemic continues to weigh heavily on the daily lives of people around the world. We are committed to stepping up multilateral efforts to help ensure universal, equitable and affordable access to COVID-19 vaccines, diagnostics and treatments through the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator. We welcome the G7 commitment to share at least 870 million vaccine doses directly over the next year targeting those in greatest need, in addition to our financial commitments. We view the vaccination process not as a race between countries but as a race against time. We will continue to support the COVAX facility’s Advance Market Commitment that focuses on low and middle-income countries, and the scaling up of manufacturing capacities in order to increase and diversify the supply of COVID-19 vaccines while maintaining open and secure supply chains. EU exports have played a key role in Canada’s vaccination plan, particularly during the crucial early months of the vaccination period.
- We will coordinate efforts to strengthen the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the global health security architecture in general. We welcome the outcome of the G20 Global Health Summit in Rome on 21 May and the World Health Assembly (WHA) in Geneva from 24 May to 1 June, including the establishment of a Member States Working Group on Strengthening WHO Preparedness and Response to Health Emergencies, to prioritize the assessment of the benefits of developing a WHO convention, agreement or other international instrument on pandemic preparedness and response and to provide a report to be considered at the special session of the Health Assembly to be held from 29 November 2021 to 1 December 2021 at WHO headquarters. We will work together to facilitate trade in essential medical goods, including through the Trade and Health Initiative at the World Trade Organization (WTO). We will seek to integrate the “One Health” approach promoted by the WHO, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in all relevant policy-making processes.
- We will enhance our collaboration to benefit our respective peoples’ well-being in the post-pandemic environment through the launch of a new Canada-EU dialogue on health under the SPA. This will bring greater coherence and visibility to existing Canada-EU health cooperation in multilateral contexts, and build a more robust health partnership. We will work together to share information, exchange best practices, identify new and emerging health threats, deepen our mutual understanding of health matters including in mental health, and work to advance shared interests to better protect the health and safety of our populations.
- We will steer the global recovery towards green, innovative, inclusive and resilient economies and the creation of decent jobs. We will coordinate our macroeconomic policy response to the effects of the COVID-19 crisis and cooperate to make global supply chains more resilient and sustainable. We recognise that many low-income countries need additional means to overcome the economic fallout of the pandemic. We support global efforts to provide immediate financial assistance, address debt vulnerabilities and stimulate increased private investment. We are committed to addressing illicit financial flows and achieving a global consensus-based solution on a reform of the international tax architecture by mid-2021 within the OECD, in line with G7/G20 commitments. We remain committed to reinitiating travel between Canada and the EU as soon as it can be done safely.
Fighting climate change and protecting the environment
- We stress the need for stepping up global action and providing more coordinated responses to tackle the urgent and interlinked challenges of climate change and biodiversity loss, as set out in the September 2020 Leaders’ Pledge for Nature.
- We are determined to reach, together with other countries, the most ambitious outcome possible at the upcoming 26th UN Climate Change Conference (COP26) to keep the world on track to achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement. We are committed to exercising global leadership towards achieving this outcome, including through the continuation of the annual Ministerial on Climate Action (MOCA) that Canada and the EU co-chair, along with China. We are also leading by example in becoming climate neutral economies by 2050, and we will work together to support and inspire other countries on their way to reaching climate neutrality and resilience. We will fully and swiftly implement our enhanced 2030 emissions reduction targets/Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and we agree on the importance for all parties to submit long term strategies as soon as possible. We will strengthen our collaboration in promoting measures and technologies to support a just energy transition, methane emissions reductions, sustainable finance and mobility, and climate adaptation. In recognition of the role of carbon pricing as a powerful and efficient means of taking action on climate change, we have proposed strengthened approaches to pricing carbon while addressing the risk of carbon leakage in our respective climate plans. We remain committed to scale up efforts to meet the USD 100 billion per year climate finance goal through to 2025, as well as to scale up finance contributing to climate adaptation action. Recognising that continued global investment in unabated coal power generation is incompatible with keeping a 1.5 degree Celsius limit on global temperature rise within reach, we stress that international investments in unabated coal must stop now and call for global efforts to phase out unabated coal in energy production. We resolve to take concrete steps towards an absolute end to new direct government support for unabated international thermal coal power generation in third countries by the end of 2021.
- We will pursue the adoption of an ambitious global framework to conserve, protect and restore biodiversity at the next UN Biodiversity Conference (COP 15) and ambitious outcomes at the UN Food Systems Summit to lead a global transformation towards sustainable food systems. We will put a particular focus on fighting deforestation and forest degradation by initiating action at domestic and international levels. We will also step up cooperation on the circular economy and efficient use of natural resources, and will strive for an ambitious multilateral framework on the sound management of chemicals and waste. We will work towards a new global treaty on plastics, incorporating a life cycle approach, including to combat oceans plastic pollution.
- We stress the need to restore the oceans and seas, including by conserving their resources, so that they are cleaner, healthier, and more sustainably used. We will also promote the transition to a sustainable blue economy, while at the same time working to maintain global momentum in addressing marine litter. Today, we are launching an Ocean Partnership Forum under the Canada-EU Ocean Partnership Declaration, to reinforce cooperation, including with stakeholders, on promoting ocean sustainability through joint initiatives. We also aim at significant progress on conservation and sustainable use of the oceans, seas and marine resources at the 2nd UN Ocean Conference in Lisbon in 2022. Finally, we will pursue our efforts to conclude, as soon as possible, an ambitious new agreement under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.
Harnessing the potential of trade, technology and innovation
- Trade, technology and innovation offer great potential to improve our economic future, including through sustainability improvements and job creation, and to tackle the many global challenges we confront today. We reaffirm our strong support for the rules-based multilateral trading system and the indispensable role that the WTO plays in facilitating and safeguarding an open, inclusive, free, fair, and transparent international trading environment. We will work together to strengthen and modernize the WTO, including through close cooperation in the Ottawa Group of like-minded countries. We aim to address specific challenges that are putting the multilateral trading system under stress, to create a level playing field, to increase the contribution of trade to job creation, green growth and sustainable development, and to ensure the proper functioning of the Appellate Body in resolving trade disputes. We will pursue concrete, realistic and pragmatic reform initiatives in the run up to the 12th WTO Ministerial Conference.
- CETA is a high standard comprehensive trade agreement; with its strong provisions on the environment and labour, our trade is more sustainable and inclusive than ever. We welcome the positive results achieved after almost four years of CETA’s provisional application. CETA helps our citizens and businesses seize the opportunities presented by our trade and economic relationship and can contribute significantly to a sustainable and inclusive post-COVID-19 socio-economic recovery. Canada and the EU will continue to work together to implement CETA recommendations to promote SMEs’ participation in international trade and to advance women’s economic empowerment and gender equality. Under CETA, Canada and the EU also cooperate to address climate change and other global environmental challenges. For example, today we are launching a series of joint events to promote sustainability, environmental stewardship and climate action in agriculture, within the framework of the Agriculture Dialogue under CETA. We remain strongly committed to ensuring the full and effective implementation of CETA.
- Ensuring the security of critical minerals and metals value chains – which are essential to the transition to a climate-neutral and digital economy, as well as to creating and supporting good jobs of the future - is a common priority. To diversify sources of important green and digital economy inputs away from less like-minded producers and foster competitive Canada-EU supply chains, we are today establishing an Canada-EU Strategic Partnership on Raw Materials, focused on enhancing: security and sustainability of trade and investment; integration of raw material value chains; science, technology and innovation collaboration; and environmental, social, governance (ESG) criteria and standards.
- Canada and the EU will deepen digital cooperation through the Canada-EU Digital Dialogue and the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI), leveraging digital tools to promote a sustainable post-COVID-19 recovery, including through agile digital regulations. Committed to supporting a free, secure and open Internet, we jointly support global standards and regulatory approaches for digital trade and technologies, in particular regarding copyright, platforms and digital credentials, secure 5G and 6G networks, blockchain, cybersecurity and trustworthy artificial intelligence. We will continue promoting a safer online environment, including by combating disinformation and hate speech online. We support close cooperation on data protection and will continue to cooperate with a view to facilitating safe and secure cross-border data flows through strong security and privacy safeguards. This will help us harness the benefits of the digital economy.
- Cooperation on research and innovation between Canadian and European institutions has been a great success story, helping us to better address global challenges, boost the competitiveness of our economies and create decent jobs. We will continue to enhance bilateral cooperation under Horizon Europe, including through launching exploratory discussions towards a possible association of Canada to the Programme, as well as under Copernicus and relevant Canadian programs, with a particular focus on supporting the green and digital transitions, including hydrogen, AI and quantum cooperation. Higher Education exchanges through Erasmus+ will keep contributing to the internationalization and quality of both education systems and to long-lasting people-to-people contacts. Such cooperation is vital to securing the long-term growth of our economies and the well-being of our peoples. We look forward to seizing further opportunities to foster cross-border knowledge exchange, build strategic business partnerships, and develop jointly the industries that we need for a sustainable and inclusive future.
- Canada and the EU recognize the socioeconomic benefits of space and the importance of space systems and international collaboration for addressing global challenges, such as the climate crisis, with particular consideration of the impacts on the Arctic. We share a commitment to ensuring that space remains free of conflict so that all humanity can benefit from the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. We will continue to strengthen our space cooperation, including on satellite navigation services and applications, the exchange of Earth observation data, and responsible behaviours to ensure safety, security and sustainability in space in the UN and other multilateral settings, as well as consider new areas of cooperation. We will also continue to explore new opportunities for regular exchanges on space issues.
Promoting democratic values, peace and security
- We will continue to cooperate closely in promoting international peace and security and our shared values, including defending human rights, gender equality, media freedom, liberal democracy, the rule of law, and the rules based international order. In the face of growing threats to democratic institutions and processes, we will advance cooperation in frameworks such as the G7 Rapid Response Mechanism to tackle foreign interference and disinformation, strengthen our resilience against these activities, and support our partners in their efforts. We will coordinate diplomatic action to prevent, discourage, deter and respond to malicious cyber activities and hybrid threats. We express grave concern about the use of arbitrary arrest or detention, including for political leverage, and resolve to continue cooperation in line with the Declaration Against Arbitrary Detention in State-to-State Relations. We reaffirm the critical importance of respecting the international law of the sea, in particular UNCLOS, and are committed to maintaining free and open maritime routes. We will also coordinate our responses in addressing international humanitarian crises. We will continue to cooperate on sanctions, including human rights sanctions, and to work together to avoid and, where unavoidable, mitigate to the maximum extent any potential unintended negative impacts.
- We will work closely together to address common concerns and challenges we face in relations with China and Russia, as well as exchange on engaging with them where that is possible and in our respective interests. Canada once again thanked the EU for its steadfast support in the case of the arbitrary detention by China of Canadians Michael Kovrig and Michael Spavor. We reaffirm our support for Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, including via our non-recognition policies on the illegal annexation of the Crimean Peninsula. We will continue to coordinate our efforts in the G7 Support Group for Ukraine in Kyiv and support Ukraine on its reform path. We reaffirm our support to the Belarusian people and for their calls for a democratic and just Belarus, while continuing coordination on our strong responses to the recent brazen and inadmissible actions of the Belarusian authorities, including through further restrictive measures. We resolved to further deepen cooperation and dialogue on key regional issues, including in relation to the Middle East, Eastern Mediterranean, the Indo-Pacific, Myanmar, Iran/JCPOA, Africa - notably the Sahel region, and Venezuela.
- We warmly welcome the invitation to Canada to participate in the PESCO Military Mobility project, a first for non-EU-country participation alongside the US and Norway, and another important step towards closer Canada-EU partnership in security and defence. The longstanding Canadian contributions to EU crisis management missions and operations, as well as our annual bilateral security and defence dialogue, demonstrate our joint commitment to close cooperation to counter threats to international peace and security. We also support deepening EU-NATO cooperation on the political and operational levels, with the aim of strengthening the enhanced, mutually reinforcing and beneficial strategic EU-NATO partnership, working with and for the benefit of all EU Member States and NATO Allies.
- The Arctic is warming at a faster rate than the global average which calls for urgent concerted action in order to prevent further adverse effects. At the same time, we recognize that sustainable development is needed to ensure that the region remains economically vibrant for its inhabitants. The increased economic possibilities have brought renewed geopolitical interest and we underline the need to retain the Arctic as a region of peace and constructive cooperation. Taking into account Canada’s role as an Arctic nation and looking forward to the EU’s updated Arctic policy, we reaffirm our determination to strengthen our cooperation on Arctic matters. We will continue to exchange information on developments in the region and commit to vigorously address the effects of climate change, notably through further cooperation in science and research. We will continue to ensure that the rights of Indigenous Peoples are protected in line with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
- We reaffirm our commitment to conclude a new Canada-EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) Agreement as soon as possible. We recognise the importance of this Agreement to provide a solid basis for the transfer and use of PNR data to prevent and fight terrorism and serious crime while respecting privacy and protecting personal data.
- Canada and the EU, working together, have both an opportunity and a responsibility to assume a people-centered approach to our collaboration, for the betterment of the lives of our own populations and those we seek to assist around the world. We hope and believe that the concrete initiatives we are announcing today will make an important contribution to a greener, more sustainable, more innovative, more inclusive, more democratic, more equal and more secure post-pandemic world.
Canada and the EU will further:
I. Ending the COVID-19 pandemic and driving a sustainable global recovery
- Support work through ACT-Accelerator to identify bottlenecks in: the production and distribution of vaccines and other COVID-19 products; developing voluntary licensing; and promoting production hubs and partnerships;
- Initiate a new Canada-EU high-level dialogue to deepen bilateral cooperation on broader health issues, further to Article 14 of the SPA;
- Seek to integrate the “One Health” approach promoted by the WHO, FAO, OIE and UNEP in all relevant policy-making processes;
- Continue joint efforts for global coordination towards a common international system to resume safe international travel;
- Explore future research and innovation actions against the impacts of pandemics;
- Address the growing global threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in all countries through a coordinated, multi-sectoral, inclusive One Health approach as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in order to contribute to strengthening universal health coverage, global health systems and future pandemic prevention and preparedness;
- Advocate for the swift and transparent implementation of the G20/Paris Club Common Framework for Debt Treatment for eligible countries;
- Encourage partners to explore options to channel the IMF's unused Special Drawing Rights to vulnerable and low-income countries; and
- Cooperate under the Canada-EU Migration Platform to exchange best practices on different aspects of migration policy.
II. Fighting climate change and protecting the environment
- Exchange on respective approaches to carbon pricing and WTO-compatible border carbon adjustments;
- Further deepen cooperation on energy transition based on the results of the Canada-EU High Level Energy Dialogue scheduled to take place on 25 June 2021, including on energy efficiency, renewable energy such as offshore wind energy, and hydrogen – in particular from renewable resources;
- Co-lead the new Clean Energy Ministerial initiative on “Empowering People: Skills & Inclusivity for Just Transitions” launched on 1 June 2021;
- Continue to co-convene, along with China, the Ministerial on Climate Action (MoCA) to advance the goals of the Paris Agreement and push for more international climate ambition;
- Work together on the Great Green Wall Initiative in the Sahel;
- Launch a series of joint events to promote sustainability, environmental stewardship and climate actions in agriculture, within the framework of the Agriculture Dialogue under CETA;
- Continue to work together in the framework of the Global Alliance on Circular Economy and Resource Efficiency (GACERE), in particular through the possible facilitation of its first high-level meeting during the World Circular Economy Forum hosted by Canada on 13-15 September 2021;
- Cooperate in the fight against deforestation in the framework of the Alliance for the Conservation of Rainforests;
- Pursue joint efforts on sustainable and smart mobility bilaterally and multilaterally, including developing common goals and standards and exchanging best practice for digital solutions and new technologies;
- Cooperate on sustainable taxonomy metrics and reporting tools;
- Join forces to pursue an ambitious environmental agenda at the WTO that includes initiatives and actions that contribute to global climate objectives; and
- Jointly promote the transition to a sustainable blue economy, including relevant activities related to maritime transport and tourism.
III. Harnessing the potential of trade, technology and innovation
- Finalise the negotiations and adopt the first Mutual Recognition Agreement in the field of professional qualifications under CETA, covering the profession of architects, to facilitate trade in professional services between Canada and the EU;
- Work to conclude a Mutual Recognition Agreement on Authorized Economic Operator programs to further secure the supply chain and facilitate trade between Canada and the EU;
- Organise a joint event around CETA’s fourth anniversary in September 2021 aimed at helping small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) to take full advantage of the benefits of CETA;
- Organise the CETA Clean Tech Summit in Canada in 2022, to explore how CETA can contribute to the green transition of the Canadian and EU economies;
- Strive to develop mutually beneficial administrative cooperation in the field of VAT/Goods and Services Tax (GST) to fight against tax fraud, especially in the e-commerce sector, as well as to promote fair competition and trade of legitimate businesses;
- Discuss the mutual recognition of Marine equipment approvals;
- Initiate exploratory discussions on the modalities for the possible association of Canada to the Horizon Europe Research Framework Programme, and promote joint and coordinated initiatives between Canadian and European partners in science, research and innovation;
- Deepen digital cooperation through both the Canada-EU Digital Dialogue and the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence and leverage digital tools and e-commerce to help promote the sustainable, post-COVID-19 recovery and growth, particularly through agile digital regulations; and
- Further strengthen cooperation on space-related areas and explore new opportunities for exchanges, including holding a high-level Canada-EU meeting.
IV. Promoting democratic values, peace and security
- Work to advance the implementation of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) and Youth, Peace and Security agendas;
- Cooperate in the UN on the establishment of a Programme of Action to Advance Responsible State Behaviour in Cyberspace;
- Work through the G7 Rapid Response Mechanism to enhance and pool our analytical capabilities and situational awareness of foreign threats to our democratic institutions, and possible instruments to impose costs on the perpetrators;
- Continue to engage constructively in multilateral institutions such as the Human Rights Council and the UN Peacebuilding Commission to address key and emerging human rights issues;
- Conclude the administrative arrangement between the PESCO Military Mobility project and Canada;
- Continue cooperation in peace support operations via Canadian contributions to EU crisis management missions and operations;
- Redouble efforts to conclude the new Canada-EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) Agreement as soon as possible; and
- Continue to cooperate closely within the framework of the Arctic Council.